Research, publications and useful links

LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and cholesterol as srisk factor for CVD


Ference, M., Kastelein, J., Ray, K et al (2019) Association of triglyceride lowering LPL variants and LDL-C lowering LDLR variants with risk of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 321. 4. 364-373.  Available at: Jamanetworkfullarticle

Ference, M., Ginsburg, H., Graham, I., Ray, K et al (2017) Low density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. 1. Evidence from genetic, epidemiologic and clinical studies.  A consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Pane.  European Heart Journal.  Available at:

Yusuf, S., Hawken, S., Ôunpuu, S., Dans, T et al (2004) Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case control study. The Lancet.  Available at: 

Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

PCCJ sponsored Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Series

For free access to these articles, you can sign up to the PCCJ Plus Website at

Milne D (2013)  Its not just a high cholesterol, it can be an indicator of a genetic disorder. Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal.  6. pp122-124. 

Neely, R (2013).  The importance of early diagnosis: how to identify patients with FH for diagnosis and referral. Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal. 7. 1. pp31-35

Thompson, G. and Seed,  M (2014)  The management of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal.  7 pp89-91

Humphries, S.  and Futema, M.  (2015) What's new in FH genetics? Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal. 1. 1. Epublication online

Green, P., Qureshi, N (2017) The role of primary care in patients with FH. PCCJ. Online publication.

Wald, D., Bestwick, M. et al (2016) Child parent familial hypercholesterolaemia screening in primary care.  New England Journal of Medicine. 375. pp1628-1637

France, M., Rees, A., Datta, D et al (2016) HEART UK statement on the management of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom.  Atherosclerosis.  Available at:

Statins and Treatments: 

The CTT Collaborists (2019) Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in older people: a meta analysis of individual participant data from 28 randomised controlled trials.  The Lancet. Vol 393, issue 10170. pp 407-415.   Available at: Download full paper

 Mach, F.m Ray, K. et al (2018) Adverse effects of statin therapy: perception vs the evidence – focus on glucose homeostasis, cognitive, renal and hepatic function, haemorrhagic stroke and cataract.  European Heart Journal 0. 1-18.  Available at:

 Newman, C., Preiss, D et al (2018) Statin Safety and Associated Adverse Events:  A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.  (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018;38:e00-e00 Available at:

Baigent, C., Landray, M, Reith, C et al (2011) The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial.  The Lancet. 377. 9784. Pp2181-2192. Available online:

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists (CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Lancet 2010. vol 376, no 9753. 1670-1680

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists (CTT) Collaborators. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease.  Meta analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. Lancet 2012. Aug 11, 380 (9841) 581-590

Cannon CP. IMPROVE-IT Trial.  A comparison of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin versus Simvastatin monotherapy on cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndromes. Presented at: American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, 17 November 2014, Chicago, USA 

Cannon, C., Blazing, M., Giugliano, R et al (2015) Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine. 372. pp2387-2397. Available at:

Collins, R., Reith, C et al (2016) Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy.  Lancet. 388, 10059. pp2532-2561.  Available at:

Finegold JA, Manisty CH, Goldacre B, Barron AJ, Francis DP. What proportion of symptomatic side effects in patients taking statins are genuinely caused by the drug? Systematic review of randomised placebo controlled trials to aid individual patient choice.  European Journal of Preventative Cardiology. 2014, 21: 464

Ridker, P., Danielson, E., et al (2008)  JUPITER STUDY: Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. New England Journal of Medicine. 359. Pp2195-2207.  Available at:

Thompson G (2008) The Cholesterol Controversy. Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, London


Sacks. F. , Lichenstein, A et al (2017) Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease, a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.  Circulation.  136.   ppe1-e23. Available at Circulation online

Estruch, R., Ros, E et al (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. (PREDIMED)  The New England Journal of Medicine.  368. 14. Pp. 1279-90

Mensink RP (2016) Effects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis. World Health Organisation

European Food safety Authority (EFSA) 2010 Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Fats
EFSA Journal 2010; 8(3):1461 [107 pp.]. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1461 

Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2015) Carbohydrates and Health. Available online:

Lipoprotein Apheresis:

Thompson GR, HEART UK LDL Apheresis Working Group. Recommendations for the use of LDL apheresis (2008) Atherosclerosis: 198; 247-255.

 Thompson GR, Barbir M, Davies D et al. Efficiency criteria and cholesterol targets for LDL apheresis. (2010) Atherosclerosis: 208;

CVD risk

Joint British Societies for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (2014) Joint British Societies’ consensus recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (JBS3)  Heart 100. pp. 1-67.  Available at:

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2014) Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification.  Available at:

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Available at:

Public Health England (2014) Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes.  Available online :