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Research  and Development

Browse the recent research into lipid conditions and their treatments


LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and cholesterol as risk factors for CVD

Association of triglyceride lowering LPL variants and LDL-C lowering LDLR variants with risk of coronary heart disease. Ference, M., Kastelein, J., Ray, K et al (2019) JAMA. 321. 4. 364-373. 

Low density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. 1. Evidence from genetic, epidemiologic and clinical studies.  A consensus statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society Pane. Ference, M., Ginsburg, H., Graham, I., Ray, K et al (2017) European Heart Journal: Volume 38, Issue 32, Pages 2459–2472

Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case control study. Yusuf, S., Hawken, S., Ôunpuu, S., Dans, T et al (2004) The Lancet.  

Hypertriglyceridaemia : Familial chylomicronaemia syndrome (FCS) and other inherited triglyceride conditions


Diagnostic algorithm for familial chylomicronemia syndrome. Stroes, E., Moulin, P., Parhofer, K et al (2017). Atherosclerosis. Supplement. 23. 1-7.

Severe Hypertriglyceridaemia and Chylomicronaemia Syndrome - causes, clinical presentation and therapeutic options.  Bashir, B., Ho, J., Downie, P et al (2023) Metabolites. 13 (3) 621

Long term effects of volanesorsen on triglycerides and pancreatitis in patients with familial chylomicronaemia syndrome (FCS) in the UK Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS).  Jones, A., Peers, K., Wierzbicki, A. et al (2023)  Atherosclerosis. 375, 61-74

Volanesorsen and triglyceride levels in familial chylomicronaemia syndrome: Long term efficacy and safety data from patients in an open-label extension trial.  Witztum, J., Gaudet, D., Arca, M et al (2023)  Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 17 (3) 342-355


Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH): PCCJ sponsored series

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It's not just a high cholesterol, it can be an indicator of a genetic disorder. Milne D (2013). Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal.  6. pp122-124. 

The importance of early diagnosis: how to identify patients with FH for diagnosis and referral. Neely, R (2013). Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal. 7. 1. pp31-35.

The management of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Thompson, G. and Seed, M (2014). Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal. 7 pp89-91.

What's new in FH genetics? Prim Care Cardiovasc Journal. Humphries, S. and Futema, M. (2015) 1. 1. Epublication online.

The role of primary care in patients with FH. Green, P., Qureshi, N (2017). PCCJ. Online publication.

Child parent familial hypercholesterolaemia screening in primary care. Wald, D., Bestwick, M. et al (2016). New England Journal of Medicine. 375. pp1628-1637

HEART UK statement on the management of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom. France, M., Rees, A., Datta, D et al (2016). Atherosclerosis.

Familial hypercholesterolaemia: including pregnancy, paediatrics and young people

Management of familial hypercholesterolemia in pregnancy. Graham DF, Raal FJ (2021). Curr Opin Lipidol. 1;32(6):370-377. 

Improving the identification of patients with a genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care: A strategy to achieve the NHS long term plan. Ingoe L, Potter A, et al (2021). Atherosclerosis. 325:38-45. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Pilot study of universal screening of children and child-parent cascade testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia in Australia. Martin AC, Hooper AJ, et al (2021). J Paediatr Child Health. doi: 10.1111/jpc.15700. Epub ahead of print.

Diagnosis and management of children and young people with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia. Priestley-Barnham, L. et al (2019). British Journal of Cardiac Nursing.  14. 1. pp22-30.  

Statins for children with Familial Hypercholesterolaemia. Vuorio, A., Kuoppala, J., Kovanen, P.T., Humphries, S., Tonstad, S., Weigman, A et al (2014). Cochrane Database of Systematic Review. 7. 

Lipoprotein (a) 


Frequent questions and responses to the 2022 Lipoprotein (a) Consensus Statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society.   Kronenberg, F., Mara, S., Stoes, E., Ference, B et al (2023)  Atherosclerosis, 374, 107-120

Lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis: a European Atherosclerosis Society consensus statement. Florian Kronenberg, Samia Mora, Erik S G Stroes et al. European Heart Journal, 2022; ehac361. 

Lipoprotein(a) – a perspective on its role in cardiovascular and calcific aortic valve disease. The British Journal of Cardiology. Series. 2022, Volume 29, Supplement 1.

How should public health recommendations address Lp(a) measurement, a causative risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD)? Alberico L. Catapano, Magdalena Daccord, Elaine Damato, et al. Atherosclerosis, Volume 349, May 2022, Pages 136-143 136-143. 

Association of LPA variants with risk of coronary disease and the implications for Lipoprotein (a) lowering therapies: A mendelian randomization analysis. Burgess, S., Ference, B et al (2018).  JAMA Cardiology. 3. 7. pp 619-672.

Lipoprotein (a), PCSK9 inhibition and Cardiovascular Risk: Insights from the FOURIER Trial. O'Donoghue, M. et al (2019). Circulation. Vol 139, No 12. pp1483-1492. 

Lipoprotein (a) Levels and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction among 7 Ethnic Groups. Pare, G et al (2019). Circulation. Vol 138. No 12. pp1472-1482.

Screening for High Lipoprotein (a). The Time is Now. Thanassoulis, G. (2019) Editorial. Circulation. Vol 139. pp1493-1496.

Statins and other treatments


Step by step diagnosis and management of the nocebo/drucebo effect in statin associated muscle symptoms: a position paper from the International Lipid Expert Panel (ILEP).  Penson P et al (2022) Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. 10.1002/jcsm.12960 

Prevalence of statin intolerance: a meta-analysis.  Bytyci, I., Penson, P et al (2022) European Heart Journal. 43. 3213-3233

Innovative, centralised, multidisciplinary medicines optimisation clinic for PCSK9 inhibitors. Khatib R, Khan M, Barrowcliff A, et al. Open Heart 2022;9:e001931. 

Perceptions of injectable therapies with cardiovascular benefit: an ACNAP survey of healthcare professionals to explore facilitators and barriers. Khatib, R. Neil, A. et al (2021) European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, Volume 21, Issue 5, July 2022, Pages 430–437.

The CTT Collaborists (2019) Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in older people: a meta analysis of individual participant data from 28 randomised controlled trials. The Lancet. Vol 393, issue 10170. pp 407-415.

Efficacy and safety of LDL-lowering therapy among men and women: meta-analysis of individual data from 174,000 participants in 27 randomised trials.  Cholesterol Treatment Trialists (CTT) Collaboration.  The Lancet.  Vol 385, issue 9976. 1397-1405

Adverse effects of statin therapy: perception vs the evidence – focus on glucose homeostasis, cognitive, renal and hepatic function, haemorrhagic stroke and cataract. Mach, F. Ray, K. et al (2018). European Heart Journal. 2018 Jul 14; 39(27): 2526–2539.

Statin Safety and Associated Adverse Events:  A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Newman, C., Preiss, D et al (2018) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2019;39:e38-e81.

The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Baigent, C., Landray, M, et al (2011).  The Lancet. 377. 9784. Pp2181-2192.  

Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170,000 participants in 26 randomised trials. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists (CTT) Collaborators. Lancet 2010. vol 376, no 9753. 1670-1680.

The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease. Meta analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists (CTT) Collaborators. Lancet 2012. Aug 11, 380 (9841) 581-590: 

Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. Cannon, C., Blazing, M., et al (2015). New England Journal of Medicine. 372. pp2387-2397.

Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. Collins, R., Reith, C et al (2016) Lancet. 388, 10059. pp2532-2561.  

What proportion of symptomatic side effects in patients taking statins are genuinely caused by the drug? Systematic review of randomised placebo controlled trials to aid individual patient choice. Finegold JA, Manisty CH, et al. European Journal of Preventative Cardiology. 2014, 21: 464

JUPITER STUDY: Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. Ridker, P., Danielson, E., et al (2008). New England Journal of Medicine. 359. Pp2195-2207.

The Cholesterol Controversy. Thompson G (2008). Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd, London


Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease, a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.  Sacks. F. , Lichenstein, A et al (2017). Circulation. 136. ppe1-e23. 

Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet (PREMIMED). Estruch, R., Ros, E et al (2013). The New England Journal of Medicine. 368. 14. Pp. 1279-90. 

Effects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysis. World Health Organisation. Mensink RP (2016)

Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for Fats. European Food safety Authority (EFSA) 2010. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(3):1461 [107 pp.]. 

Carbohydrates and Health. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (2015).

Lipoprotein apheresis

Lipoprotein apheresis efficacy, challenges and outcomes: a descriptive analysis from the UK Lipoprotein Apheresis Registry 1989-2017. Pottle A., Thompson, G., Barbir, B., et al (2019). Atherosclerosis: 290. 44-51.

Recommendations for the use of LDL apheresis (2008). Thompson GR, HEART UK LDL Apheresis Working Group. Atherosclerosis: 198; 247-255. 

Efficiency criteria and cholesterol targets for LDL apheresis. Thompson GR, Barbir M, Davies D et al. (2010) Atherosclerosis: 208, 2, P317-321.

CVD risk


Optimising Lipid Management - impact of the COVID 19 pandemic upon cardiovascular risk in England.   Newton, J., Hamed, J., Williams, H., Kearney, M et al (2023) British Medical Bulletin. 1-8

Joint British Societies’ consensus recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Joint British Societies for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (JBS3) (2014) Heart 100. pp. 1-67.  Available at:

Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2014). 

Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)

Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes. Public Health England (2014)